Fair trade aims to create a fairer way of doing business and helps suppliers to help themselves by paying fair prices to artisans which reflect the true cost of production and also implementing product development, transport, environmental protection and social development.
Definition of Fair Trade
Fair trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, which seeks greater equality in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers – especially in the south.
Fair Trade organisations have a clear commitment to Fair Trade as the principal core of their mission. They, backed by consumers, are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade.
Fair Trade is more than just trading: it proves that greater justice in world trade is possible. It highlights the need for change in the rules and practice of convential trade and shows how a successful business can also put people first.
Fair Trade Accreditation & the Fairtrade Mark (FLO)
There are 2 types of Fair Trade accreditation, the first is used on products that are grown i.e. chocolate, coffee, tea, bananas and other food stuffs, along with flowers and most recently cotton and there are now some 3,000 products available in the UK, all of which carry the Fairtrade Mark (FLO) which is an independent consumer label which appears on products as a guarantee that disadvantaged farmers and workers in the developing world are getting a better deal. To find out more – please visit FLO and the Fairtrade Foundation. The Fairtrade Mark was designed initially for commodity products. It is difficult to adapt the Fairtrade mark standards to handicrafts and other products made by small-scale artisans, as they are all unique, made of various materials and have a highly varied production process and production cost. However, FLO is currently working with the WFTO to explore certification for these handicrafts in the future.
The second type of fair trade accreditation is for handicrafts which do not carry the Fairtrade mark. To be Fair Trade, handicraft products must be sourced from fair trade accredited sources or Alternative Trading Organisations (ATO’s) who are dedicated to trading fairly and have been doing so for many years, even before the Fairtrade certification above was established. These include organisations such as BAFTS, FTF and the WFTO; the latter of which is a monitoring system which runs in parallel to the Fairtrade Mark system and provides not for profit fair trade organisations with fair trade credibility. Once a WFTO member has successfully met the requirements of WFTO standards they are eligible to use the Fair Trade Organisation Mark (FTO), which allows them to distinguish themselves to companies such as Manumit, who in turn can be confident that the producers they are supporting are directly benefiting from the fair trade movement.
10 Fair Trade Standards for Organisations
WFTO prescribes 10 Standards that Fair Trade Organisations must follow in their day to day work and carries out monitoring to ensure these principles are upheld:
Creating Opportunitiers for Economically Disadvantaged Producers
Transparency and Accountability
Payment of a Fair Price
Child Labour and Forced Labour
Non Discrimination, Gender Equty and Freedom of Association
Promotion of Fair Trade
Standard One: Creating Opportunities for Economically Disadvantaged Producers
Poverty reduction through trade forms a key part of the organization’s aims. The organization supports marginalized small producers, whether these are independent family businesses, or grouped in associations or co-operatives. It seeks to enable them to move from income insecurity and poverty to economic self-sufficiency and ownership. The trade supports community development. The organization has a plan of action to carry this out.
Standard Two: Transparency and Accountability
The organization is transparent in its management and commercial relations. It is accountable to all its stakeholders and respects the sensitivity and confidentiality of commercial information supplied. The organization finds appropriate, participatory ways to involve employees, members and producers in its decision-making processes. It ensures that relevant information is provided to all its trading partners. The communication channels are good and open at all levels of the supply chain.
Standard Three: Trading Practices
The organization trades with concern for the social, economic and environmental well-being of marginalized small producers and does not maximize profit at their expense. It is responsible and professional in meeting its commitments in a timely manner. Suppliers respect contracts and deliver products on time and to the desired quality and specifications.
Fair Trade buyers, recognising the financial disadvantages producers and suppliers face, ensure orders are paid on receipt of documents and according to the attached guidelines. An interest free pre payment of at least 50% is made if requested. Where southern Fair Trade suppliers receive a pre payment from buyers, they ensure that this payment is passed on to the producers or farmers who make or grow their Fair Trade products.
Buyers consult with suppliers before canceling or rejecting orders. Where orders are cancelled through no fault of producers or suppliers, adequate compensation is guaranteed for work already done. Suppliers and producers consult with buyers if there is a problem with delivery, and ensure compensation is provided when delivered quantities and qualities do not match those invoiced.
The organization maintains long term relationships based on solidarity, trust and mutual respect that contribute to the promotion and growth of Fair Trade. It maintains effective communication with its trading partners. Parties involved in a trading relationship seek to increase the volume of the trade between them and the value and diversity of their product offer as a means of growing Fair Trade for the producers in order to increase their incomes. The organization works cooperatively with the other Fair Trade Organizations in country and avoids unfair competition. It avoids duplicating the designs of patterns of other organizations without permission.
Standard Four: Payment of a Fair Price
A fair price is one that has been mutually agreed by all through dialogue and participation, which provides fair pay to the producers and can also be sustained by the market. Where Fair Trade pricing structures exist, these are used as a minimum. Fair pay means provision of socially acceptable remuneration (in the local context) considered by producers themselves to be fair and which takes into account the principle of equal pay for equal work by women and men. Fair Trade marketing and importing organizations support capacity building as required to producers, to enable them to set a fair price.
Standard Five: Child Labour and Forced Labour
The organization adheres to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and national / local law on the employment of children. The organization ensures that there is no forced labour in its workforce and / or members or home workers.
Organizations who buy Fair Trade products from producer groups either directly or through intermediaries ensure that no forced labour is used in production and the producer complies with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and national / local law on the employment of children. Any involvement of children in the production of Fair Trade products (including learning a traditional art or craft) is always disclosed and monitored and does not adversely affect the children’s well-being, security, educational requirements and need for play.
Standard Six: Non Discrimination, Gender Equity and Freedom of Association
The organization does not discriminate in hiring, remuneration, access to training, promotion, termination or retirement based on race, caste, national origin, religion, disability, gender, sexual orientation, union membership, political affiliation, HIV/Aids status or age.
The organization provides opportunities for women and men to develop their skills and actively promotes applications from women for job vacancies and for leadership positions in the organization. The organization takes into account the special health and safety needs of pregnant women and breast-feeding mothers. Women fully participate in decisions concerning the use of benefits accruing from the production process. The organization respects the right of all employees to form and join trade unions of their choice and to bargain collectively. Where the right to join trade unions and bargain collectively is restricted by law and/or political environment, the organization will enable means of independent and free association and bargaining for employees. The organization ensures that representatives of employees are not subject to discrimination in the workplace.
Organizations working directly with producers ensure that women are always paid for their contribution to the production process, and when women do the same work as men they are paid at the same rates as men. Organizations also seek to ensure that in production situations where women’s work is valued less highly than men’s work, women’s work is re-valued to equalize pay rates and women are allowed to undertake work according to their capacities.
Standard Seven: Working Conditions
The organization provides a safe and healthy working environment for employees and / or members. It complies, at a minimum, with national and local laws and ILO conventions on health and safety. Working hours and conditions for employees and / or members (and any homeworkers) comply with conditions established by national and local laws and ILO conventions. Fair Trade Organizations are aware of the health and safety conditions in the producer groups they buy from. They seek, on an ongoing basis, to raise awareness of health and safety issues and improve health and safety practices in producer groups.
Standard Eight: Capacity Building
The organization seeks to increase positive developmental impacts for small, marginalised producers through Fair Trade. The organization develops the skills and capabilities of its own employees or members. Organizations working directly with small producers develop specific activities to help these producers improve their management skills, production capabilities and access to markets – local / regional / international / Fair Trade and mainstream as appropriate. Organizations which buy Fair Trade products through Fair Trade intermediaries in the South assist these organizations to develop their capacity to support the marginalized producer groups that they work with.
Standard Nine: Promotion of Fair Trade
The organization raises awareness of the aim of Fair Trade and of the need for greater justice in world trade through Fair Trade. It advocates for the objectives and activities of Fair Trade according to the scope of the organization. The organization provides its customers with information about itself, the products it markets, and the producer organizations or members that make or harvest the products. Honest advertising and marketing techniques are always used.
Standard Ten: Environment
Organizations which produce Fair Trade products maximize the use of raw materials from sustainably managed sources in their ranges, buying locally when possible. They use production technologies that seek to reduce energy consumption and where possible use renewable energy technologies that minimize greenhouse gas emissions. They seek to minimize the impact of their waste stream on the environment. Fair Trade agricultural commodity producers minimize their environmental impacts, by using organic or low pesticide use production methods wherever possible.
Buyers and importers of Fair Trade products give priority to buying products made from raw materials that originate from sustainably managed sources, and have the least overall impact on the environment. All organizations use recycled or easily biodegradable materials for packing to the extent possible.